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10 neat things about perennials

Snowcap The Green Spot

Wall Cress: Snowcap with Compinkie. photo: The Ultimate Guide to Cold Climate Gardening

1. Takes a licking, but goes on ticking. Perennials are plants that come back from the same root year after year.

In cold climates, herbaceous types die back to the ground, but the roots stay warm, snug, and vibrant under the earth, where stored sugars keep them alive until it is time to send up springtime shoots of new growth.

So ‘evergreen’ types of perennials (such as heuchera and bergenia) may keep their leaves over winter, even under the snow.

2. How long is long? The term perennial refers to plants that live longer than two years, but some perennials don’t live much longer.

Delphinium is a short lived perennial that will often self-sow making it appear that they are long-lived.

Some live as little as three years. Other short-lived perennials include columbines, dianthus and Shasta daisy to name just a few.

3. Long life. Many perennials have much longer lives – peonies and clematis can bloom happily for 80 years, and more if they are divided.

Hostas, daylilies, pulmonaria and balloon flowers can all live long.

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4. Making cutbacks. Should you cut your perennials back in fall or spring? They won’t die if you are a compulsively tidy gardener, but your garden and your plants will be much better off if you wait for spring.

In cold climates, the skeleton of the plant helps collect snow to protect the sensitive crown (where next year’s growing tips will emerge).

Furthermore, the herbaceous parts of the plant will replenish nutrients in the soil as their leaves break down over winter.

Leaving the tops on provides a place for ladybugs to overwinter, helping to keep aphid populations in check, and seeds can feed the birds.

However, if you feel you really must cut them back, leave at least six inches to help collect snow and protect those crowns.

5. Make my garden grow and grow. Propagation of perennials can be done in a number of ways. The number one way, in this part of the world is through division of the roots so that one hosta, for example, can become many.

Division not only increases your plant population, it adds new life to old plants, extending their longevity and rejuvenating large clumps that have started to die back in their centres as the hearts become starved of nutrition.

You can also grow perennials from seed. Fortunately, the easiest seed starters are the short-lived perennials.

Perennials can also be increased by taking soft tissue stem or root cuttings, just as you would to start a new houseplant.

6. Ephemerals. Some plants are known as spring ephemerals. These are perennial plants that emerge early in the year and die back to their roots after a short time of blooming and producing seed.

These would include trillium, Virginia bluebells, foamflower (Tiarella cordifolia) and bloodroot.

Other plants not officially in this category but whose leaves die back (usually early in summer) after the plant flowers include columbine, Oriental poppies and celandine poppies.

Purists would not include spring flowering bulbs in this category, but they too die back after flowering.

It’s best to plant something nearby that matures a little earlier and will fill in the spaces once this happens.

7. Zoning in and out. Technically, much of Canada is zone 3, but the extremes range from the Arctic (zone 0) to the southern tip of Ontario (zone 7) and parts of Vancouver Island (zone 8).

However, the hardiness zone map was originally designed to measure the hardiness of woody plants such as trees and shrubs and is not that accurate when it comes to perennials.

All sorts of variables affect the tolerance of plants to winter in Canada, not just the temperature.

Soil, moisture, wind exposure, sunlight, proximity to large bodies of water, and elevation are just a few.

So don’t be afraid to push the envelope when trying out plants. You’d be surprised what you can grow in your zone, because the microclimate in your back yard may be a few degrees higher than you think.

Zone 3 can often overwinter plants as ‘cold’ intolerant as zone 5 and there are cases where even that has been exceeded.

8. Creating a microclimate for perennials. A south-facing, sheltered place that gets plenty of snow cover is a good start.

Adding sheltering such as evergreens, windbreaks like latticed arbours, and good rich soil can extend your zone and your growing season.

In Britain, they used to wall vegetable gardens to extend their growing season and grow more exotic crops.

Remember, cold air sinks and hot air rises. Planting next to a foundation or over a septic tank will alter the climate.

9. A time to reap and a time to sow, a time to divide and to use the hoe. When should you think about propagating your plants? Cuttings are best taken in spring when plants are in a growth mode.

There is no single perfect time for dividing plants, although the rule of thumb has been to divide fleshy-rooted plants, such as iris, in late summer so that the roots have a chance to build up reserves against the coming winter.

The rule-makers also advise you to divide flowering plants right after they have finished blooming.

My rule is don’t divide just before plants bloom or while they are blooming.

In clay soils, which can become very hard and dry in late summer, division of most plants is best done in springtime when the soil is still friable or workable and when roots can more readily re-establish.

10. Watering and fertilizing. If you understand the moisture and climate needs of your perennials, chances are you won’t have to water often or at all unless there is a drought.

Once the roots are well established, you need only water if your plants appear to be parched or are struggling for growth. You should also water if you plan to fertilize.

Should you fertilize? That depends on the amount of care you put into the soil you planted in.

Good soil with the right moisture content for the requirements of the plant will provide the nutrients your perennials need.

If you feel you must provide your plants with a boost, for most of them a balanced fertilizer (all three numbers the same) will do just fine.

The Ultimate Guide to Cold Climate Gardening by Bernie Whetter, owner of The Green Spot

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Small Hopper Feeder

• This feeder’s screens are made of patented, expanded mesh with a rust-resistant polyester powder-coat finish keep its new appearance year after year.
• The durable, plastic construction is made from 14 recycled plastic containers, with built-in drainage to help keep the seed dry.

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Tuesday evenings at Princess Park

Artist: Weiming Zhao

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Fighting free radicals with antioxident power

Cory Calverly Hedley's Health Hut

Cory Calverly, co-owner, Hedley’s Health Hut

Every day, unstable molecules (free radicals) wage a damaging war with the stable molecules in your cells.

Luckily, your body comes with its own built-in defence system – antioxidants.

These helpful molecules circulate your body like street sweepers, mopping up free radicals as they go.

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Some antioxidants suppress the formation of free radicals. Others work to “quench” these harmful molecules, and repair damage to cells and DNA (Lobo et al., 2010).

Free radicals are a natural part of many body processes, and can also come from environmental pollutants.

Antioxidants are vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients, and other compounds found in foods.

Inflammation and free radical damage increase as we age, while production of key antioxidants decreases.

The result is written on our skin in the form of fine lines, roughness, and other skin damage. We also feel it in our bodies as joint inflammation and poor circulation.

Antioxidants are especially useful for fighting inflammation, which in turn maintains healthy circulation, capillaries, and blood vessel walls, reduces joint and tissue inflammation, and improves skin smoothness and elasticity.

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